Improving Water Security Helps Reduce The Gender Gap In Mexico City
This article was originally published on WRI Insights on 30 August 2021. Tools for Equitable Green Infrastructure Projects
Project developers and cities must ensure that green infrastructure projects are carried out inclusively and equitably to achieve intended benefits.Several tools are available to do this, including:
- Social Equity Considerations for Cities’ Decision Making Related to Inner, Nearby, and Faraway Forests: This learning guide, developed by the Cities4Forests project, aims to support cities’ efforts to incorporate social equity considerations into their green infrastructure projects, including those designed to improve water security.
- Urban Community Resilience Assessment: This tool recognizes the unequal distribution of the impacts of climate change in different communities, and promotes the assessment of local resilience needs based on contextual vulnerability. It has been used to develop resilience actions in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Semarang, Kochi and Surat.
- Mapping Social Landscapes: This guide offers a methodology for forest and landscape restoration practitioners to enhance environmental governance by identifying and prioritizing the social capital of all actors in the stakeholder network. The guidebook focuses on restoration, but the same methodology can be adapted to a broader analysis of natural resource governance, including green infrastructure.
The Impact of Water Supply on the Gender GapGiven the disproportionate role women already bear from housework and childcare, the addition of water management in places of low water access results in unfair sacrifices to their own personal, professional and educational development. The time women invest in unpaid work in the home is multiplied when water does not arrive in the necessary quality and quantity — either because of insufficient supply or inadequate infrastructure. Gender inequity in managing water is not typically considered in decision-making or developing public policies. This is in part because women are underrepresented in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, occupying only 17% of the workforce in this sector in low- and middle-income countries. This situation could be remedied if water scarcity were less frequent and severe, if water harvesting and management were more equitable, and if the development of water projects ensured the full participation of women.
Green Infrastructure Can Help Reduce the Gender GapGreen infrastructure includes measures to protect, restore or sustainably manage natural ecosystems to address societal challenges. It’s a solution that can strengthen urban water resilience by mitigating the effects of climate change — such as floods and heatwaves, and the risks of water scarcity. Green infrastructure like restored forests or rainwater harvesting systems can complement conventional, built infrastructure like dams and water treatment plants, providing it with flexibility and adaptability, extending its lifespan, reducing maintenance costs, and even providing other co-benefits. For example, the city of Philadelphia established a plan in 2011 to reduce the runoff that enters its combined sewer system and overflows into water bodies. To date, the city has implemented more than 2,800 green infrastructure interventions like rain gardens, green roofs and catchment cisterns that retain water, promote infiltration and reduce runoff. The project has prevented around 10.2 million cubic meters of rainwater from flowing into rivers and streams. In addition to preventing contamination of the city’s water, green infrastructure improves the health of surrounding ecosystems and increases water security for the city and its residents.
The Case of Mexico CityCurrently, 85% of the water in Mexico City comes from compromised sources. The availability of groundwater in the Cuenca del Valle de México (Valley of Mexico’s Basin) has decreased 55% in the last 10 years due to overexploitation, while the Cuenca del Cutzamala (Cutzamala Basin) is at 50% of its storage, mainly due to prolonged drought.
The scarcity of water in Mexico City most affects communities with the highest degree of marginalization. For example, Iztapalapa, the most populous area in the city, has a water supply deficit of 35%. This results in women investing between one and four hours a week hauling water to their homes. To help mitigate this problem, in 2019 the government of Mexico City implemented the Rain Harvest program for homes in areas with the greatest water shortages. The program started in Iztapalapa and Xochimilco, and, due to its success, has since been expanded to another six areas. The program helps install rainwater harvesting systems, which capture the rain that falls on roofs of houses. Water is stored in a cistern, which can then be used for domestic purposes. It can also be used as drinking water if given additional treatment. These systems can provide a family with water for between five to eight months of the year. By prioritizing households headed by women, single mothers, indigenous people, older adults and people with disabilities, the program aims to improve equity across the board. To date, more than 13,000 female heads of household have benefited — comprising around 65% of installed rainwater harvesting systems. Additionally, the training process for the operation and maintenance of the systems promotes the equal distribution of tasks between men and women. According to the Secretariat of the Environment of Mexico City’s forthcoming Climate change and care work report, the focus on gender equality in training increased the number of homes with equitable distribution of water-related tasks from 34% to 55%. The project has also reduced the time residents spend ensuring adequate water supply for their households by 20% — 30% in households where women have sole responsibility for water supplies.